CAUCASUS


CAUCASUS
I.
CAUCASUS
mons editissimus in Septentrionali Asiae parte, Indiam dirimens a Scythia. Val. Flaccus, l. 5. Argonaut. v. 154.
Ultimus inde sinus, saevumque Cubile Promethei
Cernitur in gelidas consurgens Caucasus Arctos.
A Circassis Salatta, versus Mingreliam et Georgiam valde extensus, quibusdam Mont de Circassie. Eius pars multis est mons Ararath, versus Armeniam. Hic fertur tantae altitudinis, ut circa illius verticem Sol velut scindi videatur, uti Philostratus, l. 2. de vita Apollon. prodidit, ubi vide plura de hoc monte, itemque apud Qu. Curt. l. 7. c. 3. Hinc Caucasum mente induere, pro supra modum indurare animum. Seneca in Medea, v. 43. dixit:
Pelle femineos metus,
Et inhospitalem Caucasum mente indue.
Virg. Aen. l. 4. v. 367.
Duris genuit te cautibus horrens
Caucasus, Hyrcanaeque admôrunt ubera tigres.
Horat. Carm. l. 1. Od. 22. v. 7.
Sive facturus per inhospitalem
Caucasum. ------
Porro sylvosum esse montem, atque arboribus, quae fabricandis navibus sintaptae, plenissimum fuisse testatur Strab. l. 11. nec dubitare nos de co sinet Propert. l. 2. El. 14. v. 5.
Et nemus omne satas intendat vertice silvas,
Urgetur quantis Caucasus arboribus.
Virg. Georg. l. 2. v. 440.
Ipsa Caucaseo steriles in vertice silvae,
Quas animosi Euri assidue franguntque feruntque,
Dant alios aliae fetus: dant utile lignum
Navigiis pinos, domibus cedrosque, cupressosque.
In radicibus herbis veneficis et vulturibus abundat. Supra Iberiam ac Albaniam in Septentrione a Ptolemaeo collocatur. Cocas, et Cocheas, teste Haytonô Armenô dicitur, Albsor Nigro, Adazar Theveto. Caspium vocat Eratosthenes apud Strabonem; in quo Prometheum vinctum, aquilâ iecur rostrô depascente, fabulantur. Cum Tauro saepe a priscis confunditur, qui tamen saltem Pars Caucasi, ut bene Arrianus, l. 3. de Alex. observavit, ea nempe quae Pamphyliam et Ciliciam ambit; in aliis locis alia, pro nationum diversitate, nomina sortitus. Vide etiam Plin. l. 5. c. 27. P. de Valle, Itinerarii parte 2. et 3. Inde Caucasiae Portae seu Pylae, quae et Iberiae, circa Harmastin urbem, in cuius iupe Cumania castellum est. Ibi urbs nunc est, exteris Derbent i. e. angustiae: omnium totius Orientis munitissima: Turcis Demircapi et Themircapi, i. e. porta ferrea, uti ab Egesippo nominatur, non quod ex ferro constet, sed quod locus adeo munitus, ut quemvis hostilem impetum facile sustineat, quum transitus duntaxat pateat 300. passuum. Gaudet portu satis commodô, sub Persis. Indies tamen desicit, prope Cyrum fluv. Hae portae magnô errore Caspiae a multis
dictae fuere, ut Plin. l. 6. c. 11. tradit. Inde Caucasiae valucres apud Virgilium, Eclog. 6. v. 43.
Caucaseasque refert volucres, furtumque Promethei.
I. e. vel Aquilae, iuxta Hesiod. in Theog. Apollonium, l. 2. Argon. Ovidium, et Attium in Prometheo, sic scribentem:
Iam tertio me quoque funestô die,
Tristi advolatu aduncis lacerans unguibus
Iovis satelles, pastu dilaniat ferô.
Vel Vicltur, iuxta Fulgentium in Mythol. et Petronium in Hendecasyllabo:
Cur vultur iecur ultimum pererrat
Et pectus trahit, intimasque fibras.
Et haec forte ratio (notante De la Cerda) quare Poetae dictum volucres, quasi insinuaret Prometheum iam ab aquila, iam a vulture lancinari, nam aliter dixisset volucrem vel avem, ut Propert. l. 2. Eleg. 1. v. 70.
------ Medio pectore pellet avem.
Et Martial. in Amphith. Epigr. 7. v. 2.
Assiduum nudô pectore pavit avem.
De nomine Bochartus, l. 3. Phaleg, c. 13. Terra Gog vel Magog erat Scythiae pars circa Caucasum, quam Colchi et Armeni, quorum dialectus erat semichaldaea, Goghasan vocârunt, i. e. Gogi munimentum, atque inde Graeci Καύκαςον sonô molliori, ut cum pro gamel, κάμηλον dicunt. Fuit etiam Caucasus locus, circa Chium insul. Herodot. Item in Arcadia Halicarnasseo, nisi illic Thaumasios legendum sit, uti putat Portus. Nic. Lloydius. Sed et vide de hoc monte, montium maxuno, praeter Auctores praefatos, Salmasium inprimis, qui plurimis de illo disserit, Exercitat. Plin. ad Solinum passim, ubi inter alia duplicem Caucasum Ponticum seu Colchicum, et Indicum, a se invicem longe dissitos, statuit, et Caucasum a Scythis Craucasum vel Craucasim vocatum, h. e. nive candidum, ex Plinio, l. 6. c. 17. contendit, p. 788. et seqq. Hodieque certe Germanis grau, canum notat, quam gentem Scythicae originis esse, quae et ipsa a verbo scieten, h. e. iaculati, nomen traxerit, docent Eruditi.
II.
CAUCASUS
nomen equi Circensis, apud Silium Italic. l. 16. v. 355.
Tertius aequatâ currebat fronte Peloro
Caucasus: ipse asper nec qui cervicis amaret
Adplausae blandos sonitus clausumque cruentô
Spumeus admorsu gauderet mandere ferrum.
Frequens enim erat, equis Circensium nomina indere, non urbium solum, regionum, insularumque, sed et montium, uti pluribus docet Salmas. ad Solin. p. 936. Fuit autem hic Caucasus equus funalis dexter, Graece δεξιόσειρος, sicut Pelorus sinister, quos proin ambos aequatâ fronte currere ait. Ibid. p. 898. Vide quoque infra ubi de equis Funalibus.

Hofmann J. Lexicon universale. 1698.

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